Thirty Years’ War
The earliest pictographs of armies at war come from the kingdom of Kish, dated to about BCE. War in ancient Mesopotamia was waged by infantry shock troops until the introduction of the composite bow from Egypt. Along with the war chariot, bronze weapons, and new tactics, the Hyksos brought the advance of the composite bow. Prior to the coming of the Hyksos, the Egyptian army had used "simple bows of wood or cane with a range of around 33 feet metres while the composite bow was "capable of delivering a mighty blow out to feet metres " Anglim, et.
The development of the composite bow would change the way in which war was waged in that shock troops who were massed closely together made easy targets for archers while looser formations invited decimation by opposing shock troops. This led to changes in battle formations generally and the development of military tactics.
The earliest formation was the phalanx which was first employed in Sumer c. The phalanx was employed, in one form or another, by most of the fighting forces in the ancient world. The Greeks employed cavalry to protect the flanks and the Thebans used a combination of cavalry, infantry, and peltasts. The introduction of the war chariot and, later, the use of elephants in battle, supplemented the role of the infantry but never diminished their importance. War has been an important factor in creating states and empires throughout history and, equally so, in destroying them.
Major advances in science , technology, and engineering have been brought about through necessity during times of war. Once the river was made shallow in both channels it was, of course, easy to cross. Stories such as this provide examples of the importance of engineers in the practice of war. The increaseing development of military tactics or, in this case, geographical obstacles, necessitated a corps of engineers as a regular part of any army.
With advancements in technology, war has increasingly wreaked chaos and destruction upon the lives and cities of combatants and non-combatants and, true to the origins of the name, has sown confusion throughout time. However that may be, war continues as a common extension of political disputes in modern times and, as human beings never radically change in disposition, will continue be employed in the future as it has been in the past; fueled and justified by the ages-old tribe mentality. Editorial Review This Article has been reviewed for accuracy, reliability and adherence to academic standards prior to publication.
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How Joan of Arc Turned the Tide in the Hundred Years’ War
On occasion, a person found guilty was sent into exile or was outlawed. Usually the sentenced person was allowed a day to reach a port and take himself overseas or into a neighbouring kingdom. Exile was more commonly pronounced as a sentence on someone found guilty of a crime than outlawry and across Europe the length of exile could vary. We know that in Iceland, for instance, you could be exiled for three years for minor wrongdoings or permanently for more serious crimes, but many early medieval laws did not specify how long the period of exile could or should be.
Outlawry was occasionally meted out as a punishment for a serious crime, much like exile, but across Europe it was also commonly a sentence pronounced because the accused had fled without answering his accusers in court.
History of Peace Thought East and West: its Lessons for Today 東西平和思想の歴史−−今日への教訓
Exile and outlawry was not the only alternative to corporal punishment in the medieval period. One could seek sanctuary, not at an embassy but in a church. Many of the legislative traditions in Europe provided for a wrongdoer who had fled to a church the protection from forcible removal as well as immunity from capital or corporal punishment.
The fugitive might be required to pay a fine, forfeit his goods, perform penance, or go into exile, but mostly his body and his life were to be preserved.
Detail from the roll of Edward the Confessor, once an exile in Normandy, holding a crown. The case of Julian Assange has attracted widespread media attention as well as capturing the public imagination over the last five years. Hence, the principle of one ruler not sheltering enemies or wrongdoers of another king, found in many treaties, is not only a very old principle of international law but also one that has been hotly debated, today as much as in the Middle Ages.
For two weeks I completed some research on Anglo-Saxon marriage alliances focussing on the primary source material. The main thing I learnt was what every person must grapple with when taking on historical research; you have to go through a lot to get a little. What I did find was often scattered across vast pages of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle — the main narrative source for the period c. Most evidence came in the form of the names of the couple involved in the marriage and a brief summary of their genealogy.
Little was written in way of formal agreements, nevertheless some ideas about these powerful marriages can be drawn out. The status of the wife within these alliances was intertwined and representative of her familial support. This stems from the reputation Eadburh receives within the sources granting her an important role within Wessex history compared to other queens. As part of her scheming she accidently poisons her husband. She flees to the court of Charlemagne who, after having his age insulted, places her in a nunnery where she is later caught in debauchery and dies in poverty.
Despite its aspects of legend, through this narrative it is possible to see how women within marriage alliances represented the power of their families and kingdoms. Eighth-century Mercia was the dominant kingdom. Offa was a powerful king and marrying his daughter to Beorhtric cemented Wessex as a lesser kingdom. With the power of her father behind her Eadburh influenced her husband and had the power to destroy those in her way.
However, if the eighth century belonged to Mercia than the ninth was one of Wessex dominance where equal status was no longer granted to the wives of their kings. This could have been more than just a lesson learnt from the evil Eadburh. It shows that Wessex was the dominant power in any alliance so did not need to give power within its court to the female representative of the alliance. The only Wessex queen within the ninth century is Judith, daughter of King Charles the Bald of Frankia who was crowned before her arrival in Wessex.
As a Queen Judith was of equal standing to the King and showed the strength Frankia held as an individual kingdom and ally to Wessex. Furthermore, Judith created her own scandalous reputation by marrying her step-son and later eloping without permission.
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Nevertheless, Wessex, once a dominant kingdom, was quite happy to use its women to extend its influence. As most of the sources for the later Anglo-Saxon period are written from a Wessex viewpoint, exercising power and familial backing was positive for Wessex women exported to other kingdoms but disastrously dangerous habits for women being brought into the Wessex royal family.
Overall my experience of research has at times been painstaking and although I have to accept that the evidence is lacking on marriage alliances, it was possible to see examples of power being wielded by married women through their familial alliances and for other related ideas when I allowed the evidence to lead my areas of exploration. In the first of five guest blogs on this site, Will Buck — who is graduating from Cardiff University this week well done!
It has been a joy to work on an area of history which is so disputed due to one author, Procopius, and being able to side step this dispute completely to focus on the content of the text, and largely ignore the opinions of the said author. BL MS Arundel , f. My task during my two-week work placement was to go through this collection of eight books, and record every instance of diplomacy which I came across. At first I found it daunting that I was going to have to read eight books of what I assumed would be very repetitive descriptions of the back and forth of war, but very quickly these worries were dispersed by both the Thucydidean style, and the remarkable times Procopius was recording.
II as this is almost word for word what Gildas states; a British contemporary of Procopius, often thought to be cut off from the Roman world. For Procopius, writing in Greek, tyrant is exactly how we would expect him to refer to the kings in Britain; in Latin, this is unusual. Returning to my primary task, it became immediately obvious to me that much of the diplomatic action was conducted through the written word.
This did not come as a surprise in diplomatic relations between the Roman Empire and the Persian Empire, but when, for example, the Franks, and Goths interacted they too used letters primarily. This I can only assume was due to their pretence at being continuations of the Western Roman Empire and in assimilating the old Roman bureaucracy which still existed in the cities of the West.
Overall this has been a very enjoyable task, which I hope will prove useful to Dr Benham and any students who have to use my work. It has also allowed me to keep my eye in, so to say, over summer before I start my postgraduate work; an MA in Late Antiquity and Byzantine Studies. Thankfully this topic covered the period exactly, and I look forward to being able to continue studying this area of history at Cardiff University. Learning to time manage the different demands of admin, research and teaching has certainly proved a challenge for me, but I am lucky in that Cardiff University has well-established support for early career researchers, and one way in which I am making use of this support is by employing some student research assistants over the summer period.
Thanks to funding from the College of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences at Cardiff University I have been given the opportunity to create six research-based work experience placements for undergraduate students.
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Each placement will last between two and five weeks and each student will be working on his or her own unique research project. The research involved will range from compiling bibliographies or list of treaties, to mining specific primary sources for material relating to law and diplomacy. At the end of the projects, the material will be used as online resources for both my undergraduate and postgraduate courses — increasing the pool of available primary and secondary material for future students — but will also guide my own research for my forthcoming book on the origins of international law in the medieval period.
Furthermore, two of the students will use the material in their own dissertations and I hope that some of the students will continue to collaborate with me at postgraduate level to co-write conference papers and articles. These placements will clearly benefit my work as a teacher and researcher but I hope that the students will also benefit from honing their skills and over the coming weeks they will all guest blog here about their experiences good and bad and about the material that they have found. Topics will include treaties modern and medieval ; exiles, criminals and outlaws; Anglo-Saxon marriage alliances; early medieval peace conferences; and Byzantine diplomacy.
I am ridiculously excited to see and hear about what they will find and, moreover, to work with some great people. Roll on summer! Mao and Josef Stalin in Moscow, December