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Stannis is later killed during the Battle of Winterfell. She tells the few men loyal to Jon that she saw Jon fighting in Winterfell in the flames, but chalks it up to another vision that will not come true. Later that evening in her chambers at Castle Black Melisandre undresses for the evening. Looking forlorn at herself in the mirror, she takes off her necklace and her illusion of beauty disappears, revealing her true form: a frail old woman, many centuries old.

She climbs slowly into bed. Later, Ser Davos implores Melisandre to attempt to revive Jon Snow, saying that he cares nothing for red gods, drowned gods or the Seven, but he does believe in her power. Melisandre reluctantly agrees to try. As Davos and Tormund watch, with Ghost present too, Melisandre attempts the resurrection, ritualizing the experience more than Thoros did. Initially after performing the ritual, nothing happens. Dejected, all but Ghost leave. As Ghost gets up from resting, Jon Snow gasps and opens his eyes. A few moments later, an astonished Melisandre returns to the room to find Ser Davos assisting the newly-revived Jon.

Desperate for answers, Melisandre asks him about his experience, and is disappointed to learn that like Beric Dondarrion, he saw nothing while dead. Since Jon is still trying to wrap his head around what happened, Davos asks Melisandre to give him some space - which she does to his surprise. Melisandre is later visible on the ramparts of Castle Black when Jon appears before the Night's Watch, and when he executes the ringleaders of the mutiny at Castle Black.

Davos asks if Melisandre intends to stay at Castle Black. She replies that she will do whatever Jon Snow commands her to do, as she does indeed consider him to be the prince that was promised. Davos points out that she was once sure it was Stannis, and takes the opportunity to grill her about what really happened on the road to Winterfell. They are interrupted by Brienne of Tarth , who boldly tells them that Stannis lost, and that she executed him after he admitted to using blood magic to kill Renly.

Davos processes Brienne while Melisandre slips away. Jon's cousin thought to be his half-sister , Sansa Stark , escapes from the clutches of Ramsay Bolton , her husband, who also led the Bolton forces during Stannis's final defeat at the Battle of Winterfell.

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She demands that she and Jon lead the Stark loyalists against House Bolton, which he originally ignores, but agrees after Ramsay sends a letter detailing the death of his father and the capture of their brother, Rickon. Melisandre is present at a war council meeting while Sansa, Jon Snow and Davos discuss which of the Northern houses they can ask for support. Melisandre later rides with Jon and Sansa when they depart from Castle Black. The night before the Jon Snow goes to battle with Ramsay Bolton , he enters Melisandre's tent and remarks that he did not see her at the war council.

He asks her not to bring him back from the dead a second time if he falls during the next day's battle. She implies that it is not her decision and she must do as the Lord of Light commands. After Jon's victory at the battle, Melisandre walks along the battlements of Winterfell, as she once saw in the flames.

She is unaware that Ser Davos is watching her from below, having discovered that she had Princess Shireen burned at the stake. When Davos interrupts Melisandre's conversation with Jon Snow in the hall of Winterfell and challenges her about Shireen's death, she shows remorse at the sight of her burned wooden carving and confesses her culpability.

Though she argues that she burnt Shireen at the command of her parents, when Jon asks her for any last defense, Davos denounces the order as evil and threatens to execute her personally. Jon exiles her from the North for her crime of infanticide, after which she is seen riding south from Winterfell.

After being exiled from the North, Melisandre heard tales of Daenerys Targaryen 's impending arrival, and returns to Dragonstone to meet her. Although Varys is hostile towards her due to his hatred for blood magic , Daenerys welcomes her in light of the assistance that Kinvara and the Red Priests of Volantis have given her.

When Daenerys points out that she isn't a prince, the queen's translator Missandei explains this isn't actually a problem: the High Valyrian word for "prince" is actually gender-neutral and can mean "prince or princess". Melisandre avoids speculating on the promised one's exact identity, and tells Daenerys that she has a role to play in the war to come and so does the King in the North, Jon Snow. She urges Daenerys to meet with him and let him tell her the things he's seen.

Tyrion is surprised by Melisandre's message but agrees, prophecy or no, that he could be a valuable ally and tells the Queen that he has more reason than she does to hate Cersei Lannister. Daenerys agrees to summon him so that he can bend the knee to her. Melisandre remains silent through the political discussion.

When Jon Snow finally arrives at Dragonstone, Melisandre stays back, observing from the cliffs. Varys meets her there and intuits that she's done something to anger the King in the North. Melisandre confirms that neither Jon nor his adviser are fond of her due — in her own words — to mistakes that she had made. Melisandre says that she will stay away from both Jon and Daenerys as her days of "whispering in the ears of kings" are over. Melisandre declares that she has "brought ice and fire together" and that her work is done.

Varys is delighted to hear that she will depart for Volantis soon, and advises her not to return to Westeros. Melisandre states that she cannot follow that advice, as she must return to Westeros once more to face her end: like Varys, it is her fate to die in Westeros. As Winterfell prepares for the Army of the Dead to march on them, Melisandre approaches from the darkness.

She initially rides towards Jorah who is commanding the Dothraki. There, she asks him to tell them to raise their weapons, which they do. Melisandre then places a hand over the blade of the nearest Dothraki, Qhono , and chants in Valyrian. This causes the swords of every Dothraki to light on fire, giving them hope as they charge towards the Army of the Dead. Melisandre then enters Winterfell. Seeing Ser Davos clearly aggravated by her presence, she assures him that there is no need to kill her himself, as she will be dead by morning.

She also shares a look with Arya before the battle begins, fulfilling the promise made to her years earlier. As the battle turns against the living and they attempt to retreat into Winterfell, they also attempt to light a spiked trench to prevent the dead from crossing. However, the cold is so intense that the fire from their arrows is quickly extinguished. The Unsullied escort Melisandre to the trench where she quickly uses the same chant to set it ablaze, initially destroying all the Wights that attempt to cross.

Sometime later, when Arya , Sandor Clegane , and Beric Dondarrion barricade themselves inside the great hall of Winterfell, Beric dies of injuries the dead inflicted on him. Melisandre appears and explains to Arya that the Lord of Light had brought him back for a purpose, and that purpose is now fulfilled.

Arya recalls the last time they met, where Melisandre prophesied that Arya would shut many eyes forever: brown eyes, green eyes, and, as Melisandre now reminds her, blue eyes. As the dead attempt to break into the room, Melisandre asks Arya, "what do we say to the God of Death? With her destiny fulfilled, she strides out of the gates of Winterfell and discards her cloak and Asshai'i necklace.

Her true form revealed, Melisandre ages rapidly, the power of R'hllor no longer maintaining her youth. Walking placidly into the cold air, she is watched by Davos as she collapses into dust before the sun rises - fulfilling her promise to him that she will die before dawn. Another of Melisandre's prophecies ultimately comes true when Varys betrays Daenerys, in order to support Jon Snow's claim to the Iron Throne, as the son of Rhaegar Targaryen. Following this, Daenerys has Varys executed, fulfilling Melisandre's prediction that Varys would be an Essosi who would die in Westeros, as was she.

Melisandre was best defined by her seemingly unwavering faith in the Lord of Light , which seemed to dominate every move she made. A religious fanatic, she attributed many, if not any, great thing to be done in the world as an act carried out by the Lord; however, funnily enough, she does not credit herself with anything she does in the fire god's service, describing herself as simply a vessel for his will.

She was extremely intelligent in her own way and appeared to have an uncanny understanding of other people, which enabled her to either gain their trust or to subdue them in a confrontation without it coming to blows between them, which sets her apart from women like Cersei Lannister who subdues them by threatening them with her own family's power and Margaery Tyrell who actually got people to trust her and feel comfortable around her.

The latter was a person whom Melisandre especially contrasted with in this regard, because almost everyone felt uneasy around her, in spite of her calm and serene behavior. Melisandre had a habit of being exceptionally changeable in spite of her absolute faith in R'hllor, which was demonstrated several times.

When she first met Stannis Baratheon, she convinced him that he will win the war with great ease on the basis that he is the one true king, and went to extremely great lengths to ensure that this victory was carried out to the point of using Shadowbinder magic to murder Renly Baratheon, which proved to be a wasteful move since Stannis ended up losing the Battle of Blackwater Bay anyway.

Embracing The Dark: The Magic Order Of Dragon Rouge: Its Practice In Dark Magic And Meaning Making

When Stannis brooded over losing at Blackwater Bay, he actually threatened her and she still remained faithful to R'hllor, although she did not willingly admit that her god wronged both her and Stannis by causing the loss at Blackwater Bay - a suggestion which Melisandre ought to believe because she was convinced that the Lord of Light decides all destinies, and seemed to have protected the usurping lords who stood against Stannis.

She defended herself by assuring Stannis that the war between Stannis and his enemies would be long and costly, but eventually he would succeed. Melisandre was a woman who was completely aware of her own enigma - in fact, her enigma was something that she relished.

Very little is truly known about her past other than generalizations that she gave to other people; she claimed that she had been fighting for far longer than Stannis ever had something which is strongly supported by how old she was revealed to be , and was revealed to actually be a ferocious opponent in her own right, as she subdued Stannis when he attacked her by reminding him of how he needed her alongside him.

She also frightened Davos Seaworth with her own powers, especially by alluring him in anticipation for what he was about to see. One prime example was when Davos returned to Dragonstone, and Melisandre maintained control over Stannis by provoking Davos into attacking her, which led to him being arrested. In spite of her animosity, Melisandre was not above realizing that Davos was still of use to Stannis and that he would be needed in the coming war.

Melisandre was also completely able, and adept, at using her own sex to her advantage, seducing Gendry into being a part of her ritual for Stannis - however, when Robb Stark was killed as a result of this ritual, Melisandre scorned Davos for wanting to see the Lord's power, since the ritual still has not brought Stannis closer to the Iron Throne, even though Melisandre performed the ritual herself.

Melisandre, although apparently representing a god who is good and true, could deliberately be incredibly ruthless and cruel. She was completely willing to erase hundreds of lives in representation of her faith in the Lord of Light, to the point of outright murdering good men and allies under the assumption that it would win Stannis favor with her god. She saw nothing wrong with burning people publicly, and behaved as if they had been freed from their sinful bodies and become assets to the Lord of Light, comparing it to how a woman screams before she gives birth and is immeasurably happy afterwards - Shireen Baratheon was quick to point out the drastic difference being that women giving birth are not ash and bone afterwards.

Melisandre spoke of the sinfulness and cruelty of her enemies, even though she herself could be cruel and even arrogantly and unapologetically sadistic, shown prominently when she taunted Davos with the concept that the mass-casualties at Blackwater Bay were his fault because Melisandre was not there, and how she used Mathos's own death which happened right in front of Davos as an example to this.

The worst example of her cruelty by far was when she convinces Stannis to burn his own daughter alive in public, indifferent to the screams of both Shireen and her mother, and the brutal despair that Stannis experienced afterwards. As the War of the Five Kings climaxed and devolved into disaster, Melisandre's faith began to crack.

She began to lose faith in Stannis as the Battle of Winterfell came closer at hand, but remained at his side for the most part; however, after the deaths of Shireen and Selyse the latter of which Melisandre was partly responsible for , Melisandre fled the battle, perhaps in fear of Stannis's rage, and was unable to do anything to help Stannis crush the Boltons in battle, even though she claimed to Davos that she would have eased Stannis's victory at Blackwater.

Melisandre's faith was crushed at the news of Stannis's defeat and the concept that she was wrong, and she became more withdrawn than before. She seemed to transfer her faith to Jon Snow, who actually proved to be the man who would win a great battle in the North, and supported him after she resurrects him. This was a surprising turn for Melisandre because she supported Stannis so strongly under the impression that he was the one true king that would defeat the great evil to come, only to transfer her faith to somebody else.

On the other hand, this was an understandable move by Melisandre because she tried to maintain her faith in the Lord of Light, in spite of the misfires and obstacles that came her way. It should be noted that during her service to Jon, Melisandre stopped proselytizing her faith and only used her magic for benevolent purposes, adopting a more subdued approach to her religion and future events and ultimately behaving similarly to Thoros. Melisandre's inadvertent cruelty and ruthlessness, as well as her extremely costly faith in the Lord of Light, finally exploded in her face when Davos finally confronted her over the death of Princess Shireen.

Having quarreled with Davos over the true greatness of the Lord of Light from the beginning, Melisandre was defenseless when Davos berates her over the wastefulness of her sacrifices and the fact that, in spite of her claims to represent a great god, she purposefully burned a child at the stake on the basis that she had king's blood in her veins. Melisandre was unable to speak when Davos condemns the Lord of Light as evil because of what he 'made' Melisandre do, and has the gall to shame Stannis and Selyse as equivalently responsible for Shireen's death, even though, out of the three of them, Melisandre was the only one who did not show restraint or remorse in the act.

She was unapologetic about her own blind faith, and maintained her philosophy that the Lord of Light is influential in the battle between good and evil, and the fact that she committed unforgivably evil acts in representation of good. Even though Melisandre claimed to possess superior knowledge about the Lord of Light, she faced several incidents and outcomes which she proved unable to predict or even understand.

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She was speechless at the revelation that Beric Dondarrion had been brought back six times by the Lord of Light, which she deemed impossible. She was also disappointed at the concept that there is nothing after death, even though she convinced herself and tried to convince many others that death would be a release into someplace much greater than the hell that everyone lives in.

However, despite in many of her dreadful flaws, Melisandre's true and only goal in life was to ensure that fire would defeat ice and thus prevent the destruction of mankind by taking part in the efforts to destroy the white walkers. Even after being banished from Winterfell by Jon Snow for murdering Shireen, Melisandre still remained truly loyal to Jon Snow and his cause, as she knew that he was needed to defeat ice and death for good.

She bravely and honorably returned to Winterfell before the Battle of Winterfell to use her magical powers to help keep the dead away, which proved to be advantageous in the battle, and was even the one who instructed Arya Stark to finally slay the Night King and his army of the dead for good, by telling her to defy the god of death. She also showed no fear of dying, as she informed Varys after being banished from Winterfell that she would purposefully return to Westeros one final time to die, and after the dead are all destroyed, she walked off into the snow, removing her bewitched ruby choker, and succumbed to old age and died peacefully, having realized she had served her divine purpose in the world and probably allowing her to be finally with the Lord of the Light in the afterlife.

Being a red priestess , Melisandre possessed a very wide and impressive range of magical abilities, making her a very powerful and formidable sorceress indeed. Melisandre could receive genuine prophetic visions from the Lord of the Light by observing visions of the future in flames, the art of which is called pyromancy.

Being a shadowbinder from Asshai , Melisandre possessed the magical ability to control and manipulate shadows as shown when she birthed a shadow demon and sent it to assassinate Renly Baratheon. Melisandre had the knowledge and power to perform blood magic , as shown when she prepared a blood magic ritual involving drawing blood from Gendry with leeches, and then having Stannis curse the names of his rival kings into the fire, hoping to cause their imminent dooms.

This curse may have even worked, given how the names of every rival King cursed eventually died a violent death. Melisandre had the power to magically summon fire while chanting in Valyrian. She managed to cast an incantation in Valyrian which ignited the swords of the Dothraki before the Battle of Winterfell and again to ignite the trenches surrounding Winterfell to ward away the wights from entering the fortress.

Like Thoros , Melisandre had the power to resurrect people from the dead by casting a long High Valyrian incantation over the deceased person's body to revive them, as shown when she successfully managed to resurrect a fallen Jon Snow , even after previously believing her spell had been unsuccessful. Melisandre had the power to cast glamours, magical illusions which alter the physical perception and appearance of people and objects. This was a power most likely bestowed to her by the R'hllor, in order for her to fulfill her great and divine purpose in the world.

Melisandre was shown to have a magical resistance to the effects of poisons, as shown when she drank and survived a whole cup of Maester Cressen 's poisoned wine with the strangler , an extremely potent poison. Being a servant of the Lord of the Light, Melisandre once commented to Jon Snow that she was incapable of ever feeling the cold. This ability was likely related to her pyrokinetic talents.

She was also able to explain the wide variety of magical effects these potions possessed. In the A Song of Ice and Fire novels, Melisandre is a priestess of the red god, R'hllor, the Lord of Light , whose worship involves the idolization of fire and light. R'hllor is a popular deity in several of the Free Cities particularly Lys , Myr , and Volantis but is almost unheard of in Westeros.

Although the series has altered some of Melisandre's actions, van Houten's portrayal is overall consistent with Melisandre as described in the books. Melisandre has only one POV chapter in the novels. Very little has been revealed about Melisandre's earlier life, other than that she is originally from the city of Asshai in the distant east. Melisandre recalls that as a small child, she was a slave named "Melony". At the slave auction block, she was known as "Lot Seven".

She was sold at a young age to the temple of the Lord of Light in Asshai, eventually rising to become a priestess, and thus has spent most of her life in the service of the religion. Melisandre thinks to herself that she "had practiced her art for years beyond count". Melisandre keeps stating that " Azor Ahai shall be born again amidst smoke and salt to wake dragons out of stone ".

Since Dragonstone, a volcanic island, is a place of smoke and salt, she claims that Stannis is Azor Ahai reborn. In A Clash of Kings , Melisandre "gives birth" to two shadows , the first against Renly and the second - being the one that Davos bears witness to - against Ser Cortnay Penrose, the castellan of Storm's End. He ferries Melisandre into the caves beneath Storm's End because the castle is an ancient stronghold, and guarded against magic. To accomplish this he employs the same route, and "smuggler's tricks" he used when smuggling onions and dried fish into the castle during the Siege of Storm's End in Robert's Rebellion.

The TV series condensed this into just one incident. Melisandre's vision powers can detect dangers that threaten her, but they are limited. Davos takes advantage of that weakness in order to save Edric Storm; indeed, Melisandre fails to foresee that. After Melisandre arrives at Castle Black , she oddly continues to wear lightweight clothing not well suited to the sub-arctic cold at the Wall - her magical powers apparently give her all the heat she needs.

Her powers also allow her to only sleep for one hour a night: she dislikes sleeping more than the bare minimum she has to, because she has nightmares about her time as a slave. She takes an interest in Jon Snow , and whenever she looks into the flames for visions of Azor Ahai , who she believes to be Stannis , all she sees are visions of Jon. Men see what they expect to see ". She also reveals that to Jon, who demands to know what sorcery it is; her answer is "Call it what you will. Glamor, seeming, illusion.

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Melisandre does not travel with Stannis's host to Winterfell but stays in Castle Black. She repeatedly warns Jon of " daggers in the dark ", but he refuses to listen, especially after she tells him of a vision she has had of Arya Stark fleeing through the North and finding Jon at the Wall; the girl turns out to be Alys Karstark. Melisandre is one of the people whom Ramsay demands from Jon in the Pink Letter , referring to her as "his [Stannis's] red witch".

It is unclear why Ramsay if indeed the letter was written by him needs her.


Despite what Davos thinks of Melisandre, she is not heartless: she sympathizes with him for losing four of his sons at the battle of the Blackwater; therefore she asks Stannis to leave Davos's fifth son Devan at Castle Black, where he will be relatively safe. Melisandre does not resent Davos for intending to kill her or for preventing her from sacrificing Edric Storm. She has a positive opinion about Davos due to his total loyalty to Stannis, even though he is misguided in her eyes.

Her appearance is slightly different in the books. She is described as having red eyes and being taller than most men. Carice van Houten, who plays Melisandre, has blue eyes and is not particularly tall, her height being 5 foot 6. Melisandre's hair is noted to be much redder than that of a natural redhead, but this was easily addressed with a wig. Melisandre's name did not appear in the Season 1 pronunciation guide , but the phonetic pronunciation of her name was later seen written out in a behind-the-scenes short video: "meh-liss-AHN-dreh".

Sign In Don't have an account? Start a Wiki. Do you like this video? Contents [ show ]. And in that darkness, eyes staring back at me. Brown eyes, blue eyes, green eyes. Eyes you'll shut forever. We will meet again. You only need eyes to see. The one we live in now. If the Lord was done with me, so be it, but he's not. I'll be dead before the dawn. Davos Seaworth : " There's always the Red Woman. Jon Snow : " Ride South today. If you return to the North, I'll have you hanged as a murderer.

Stannis choking Melisandre in " Valar Morghulis ". Stannis and Melisandre seeing his future in "Valar Morghulis". Promotional image for Melisandre in Season 3. Lady Melisandre pays a visit to the Riverlands in " The Climb ". Stannis and Melisandre in " Mhysa ". Promotional image for Melisandre in Season 4. Melisandre taking a bath and discussing poisons with Selyse in " Mockingbird ".

Melisandre at Castle Black in Season 5. Melisandre asks Stannis for a blood offer of his own daughter. Vanity Fair , House Baratheon of Dragonstone. Jon's resurrection. Life for a life? Breathing with gaping chest wounds? Yyp wrote: Alatari wrote: Also thought the CGI department really botched it for not showing his wounds gradually close up before he too Categories :.

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The North Remembers. The Night Lands. Garden of Bones. The Ghost of Harrenhal. The Old Gods and the New. A Man Without Honor. The Prince of Winterfell. Valar Morghulis. Valar Dohaeris. Dark Wings, Dark Words. Walk of Punishment. Kissed by Fire. The Bear and the Maiden Fair. Second Sons. The Rains of Castamere. Two Swords.

The Lion and the Rose. Breaker of Chains. First of His Name. The Laws of Gods and Men. In this fashion, Agrell gives a host of examples for each rune, which should confirm its particular place in the rune row. Next, if one accepts the rune order, and therefore the numeric values, all sorts of numerological patterns can be found in actual runic inscriptions. By adding up the values of the runes in an inscription, Agrell finds meaningful numbers, which can be traced back to smaller numbers and their own particular meaning.

Especially this last method has earned Agrell a lot of criticism from other runologists, because it appears in practice that it is extremely hard to derive an consistent numerological system from the runic inscriptions Agrell uses as a source.

Embracing The Dark: The Magic Order Of Dragon Rouge: Its Practice In Dark Magic And Meaning Making

At the same time, Agrell's theory has proven to be appealing to those who want to practice rune magic in our age. Most books on modern esoteric rune magic use the regular futhark rune row, but Agrell's legacy lives on in the rune magic of the Swedish organisation Dragon Rouge.

Dragon Rouge is a so-called Left Hand Path religion, which, among other things, means that they emphasise the revaluation of aspects of life, that are not appreciated by the larger monotheistic religions. Concepts like the following come to mind: 'the female', 'darkness', and as the name suggests, 'that which is on the left hand side', 'the hidden'.

Besides this, Dragon rouge is an eclectic religion, incorporating elements from different religious traditions and mythologies in its own. Some inspirations include Qliphotic Kabbalah, Tantra, shamanism, and different kinds of dragon symbolism. I will focus on that last element. More information about Dragon Rouge can be found via the list of sources below.

Nordic pre-christian magic and rune magic are important subjects for Dragon Rouge, which becomes clear from the fact that they have organised courses on the subject. The exact content of these courses is unknown to me, but much of it can be derived from the book that Dragon Rouge founder Thomas Karlsson wrote about rune magic: Uthark. Nightside of the Runes. As the title suggests, Karlsson utilises Agrell's uthark -theory. He considers this theory a valuable tool in understanding the 'dark' side of the runes. As he writes in the introduction: The runes consist of a light outer form and a dark inner dimension.

The hidden and dark side of the rune row has been called the Uthark. But the Uthark has revealed itself as a very powerful tool for entering the secrets of the runes and for exploring their nightside. Karlsson 8 On the one hand, Karlsson states that the historical accuracy of the theory is not entirely relevant to his current magic practice, and at the same time he confesses that he sees something in Agrell's theory, because of the extensive numerological correspondences. In chapter two of his book, Karlsson treats the entire uthark , where he, like Agrell, emphasises the symbolic value of the runes, their names, and their numeric value.

An important difference with Agrell is that Karlsson treats the system as a given truth, and mostly writes on the correspondences within Nordic mythology and culture. Only a few times does he refer to concepts from antiquity, which Agrell does much more often, of course, to empower his own theory. After this, in chapter three, Karlsson describes a spiritual landscape, using the nine worlds of Nordic mythology.

Like the sephiroth of Kabbalah, these nine worlds form a sort of 'tree of life'. Between these worlds there are 24 paths, each represented by a rune. In this way, the runes are a way to travel between spiritual worlds. Karlsson proceeds to give examples of how runes can be placed in different diagrams to facilitate contemplation of their relations. In chapter five, Karlsson refers to the Eddas and the Icelandic sagas as a historical basis for practical rune magic. Each of these processes is placed in a practical context, so as to be interpretable for use by the reader.

The short chapter six is dedicated to runic yoga, a system of imitating rune shapes with the body, originally devised in earlier German runic esotericism. Karlsson does not give many supplements to this system. This is also seen as a way of using runes in ritual practice. The seventh chapter describes that for which runes are most often used in modern esotericism: divination. Here Karlsson presents his interpretations of the runes in terms of advice and prediction.

He uses the method that is regularly used in the explanation of tarot cards, except a new suggestion for a system of casting the runes, based on the five Nordic elements of earth, water, air, fire and ice. Chapter eight contains a comparison of Karlsson's 'runosophy' and Kabbalah, in which he also refers to the works of Johannes Bureus, who made this comparison several centuries ago. He adds his own system to this, in which he places ten runes with their respective sephiroth. Such comparisons illustrate clearly the wide orientation of Dragon Rouge, which attaches great value to a broad spiritual view.

The final chapter is prehaps most relevant in the context of Dragon Rouge, because he relates the uthark to "the dark side". He emphasises that there is no strict moral separation between light and darkness in Nordic mythology. Light reflects order and harmony, while darkness represents unknown, powerful forces that are waiting to be discovered. This goes perfectly with the practice of Dragon Rouge, which is geared toward such 'dark' magic. The uthark stand for the dark side "nightside" of the runes, the key to power and wisdom: The Uthark have [sic] been interpreted as the dark and inner version of the rune row.

It begins with two very dark runes which symbolizes the descent to the dark worlds. The Uthark ends with two exact opposites to these runes which represent the ascent from the underworld and illumination in the secrets of the runes. Karlsson What follows is an interpretation of the different runes as steps in a spiritual journey through darkness, in search of enlightenment. As I have shown, the uthark theory lives on in the current practical rune magic of Thomas Karlsson and Dragon Rouge.

Of course, there are differences. For Agrell, the uthark theory is purely scientific, and geared towards proving that the rune row was just as suitable for numerological and letter magical purposes as other alphabets. Furthermore, Agrell believed that the runen were actually used in this way in a specificially numerological context, in different inscriptions. Karlsson distances himself from this alleged historical background, and is mainly interested in the current magical merits of the uthark theory.