Communication Instructions for British Warships in the U. Casualty List - list of soldiers wounded, killed, missing or taken prisoner by the enemy. Canadian Light Horse - cavalry unit, originally intended as a scouting force. Canadian Machine Gun Corps - soldiers with machine guns responsible for supporting or defending against infantry attack. Canadian Mobile Pet. Canadian Mounted Rifles - mounted soldiers originally, later used largely as infantry. Commanding Officer - any officer in command of a specific unit usually battalion level and up. Court of Inquiry - group of officers convened to investigate specific questions or events.
Command - unit under the command of one officer or non-commissioned officer. Convalescent - a soldier recovering from wounds or illness. Central Ontario Regimental Depot - facility in England used to assemble men and to store and administer equipment and materials. Company - unit of approximately men, divided into 4 platoons. Canadian Reserve Calvary Regiment - cavalry reserve unit based in England. Canadian Railway Troops - men recruited and organized to operate railways in rear areas.
Company Sergeant-Major - senior non-commissioned officer in a company. Divisional Ammunition Column - organization responsible for supplying ammunition to a division. Divisional Ammunition Company - organization responsible for supplying ammunition to a division. Distinguished Conduct Medal - medal for bravery awarded to other ranks non-officers. National Defence Headquarters Address used in telegrams. Discharged - released from the military service, or from a hospital. Division or Divisional - unit of approximately 12, men commanded by a major-general.
Daily Order Of a Unit - administration orders issued to mark personnel changes of a unit transfers, hospitalizations, etc. Director of Underwater Experimental Research Establishment. Duck wagon An amphibious six-wheeled vehicle of six-ton capacity. Driver - designation or rank of a soldier who drives vehicles. Distinguishing letters on files of Permanent Joint Board on Defence. Electrical Artificer, 1st Class or 2nd, 3rd, 4th or 5th Class. Embarked - went aboard ship for departure overseas; Canada to Britain or Canada to France. Eastern Ontario Regimental Depot -facility in England used to assemble men and to store and administer equipment and materials.
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Amazon Advertising Find, attract, and engage customers. Amazon Drive Cloud storage from Amazon. Alexa Actionable Analytics for the Web. Sell on Amazon Start a Selling Account. AmazonGlobal Ship Orders Internationally. Amazon Inspire Digital Educational Resources. You could put cleats in it and it rang a bell anywhere on the Post every five seconds which they used at the base end stations.
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We took a reading. Then that reading was sent to the plotting room which came through our switchboard. Down to the plotting room which was underground at the gun emplacements. At the next interval they would pinpoint it and do their work. They would have five seconds they would get an azimuth longitude mark where supposing the ship was at that time.
Then they could send the information up to the gun commander and also the commanding officer of the gun, that concrete emplacement that sits right in between. The gun commander, the GI, was right at the gun. He got the same information as the commanding officer and as long as there was no corrections, he would give the information to the man that was operating the gun, to set the azimuth or elevations at these different intervals, from the bell. Then when the set time was then they could fire. That ship should be right there. Project the landing. They were always making corrections, you know.
TH: Yeah. To compensate for the movement. EB: So maybe, say by the time that the information came from base end station, maybe it was a half a minute by the time that it went to the plotting room. He in turn referred it to the man on the gun to set the azimuth and elevation was maybe a half a minute.
TH: I just wanted to ask when the bell rang, you know, the door bell, was the bell in here, in the corridor here or was it down in there? EB: We had it in here. TH: Oh, you had it in here. Where abouts was it? EB: On the same panel board. TH: Okay. I notice some gray paint here too in this corner here. Is that the type of color that was here on the floor? TH: Was this white? The color going on the ceiling? EH: So the gray came up half the wall in various places? EB: In this area, yeah. EH: For the rest it was clear white arching up to the ceiling and arching back down to the other side wall.
Was there a floor line here? About a foot up? Was there a black line? EB: It was linoleum, inlaid. TH: Yeah, linoleum, because you can see where its been chopped off. EH: Just at the lower part though? TH: Yeah, just at the lower edges. EB: After awhile, they put battleship linoleum on the floor. That was brown color. EB: When they put it in there they put it in here at the same time.
When we walk further back toward the end of the Fire Control Room, on the right was a manual switchboard. It would be just like a small telephone office that they had years back just for emergency set up. We only had certain phones connected. Just emergency lines coming in and we also had telephone line communications to the gun emplacements.
We only had communication for this telephone line. EH: So it looked like an old fashioned telephone operator switchboard set up and that was the emergency lines. EB: Opposite the switchboard was a small frame like they have in a telephone office. EB: But the communications in the back, the communications for post telephone they would use our cables. They would come into here and we would cross connect and we would re route it so we would have communications between here and our boards and send them to the gun emplacements.
EH: So this frame would be on the left, just before we go through the doorway. EB: Communications for the rear, rough connections. TH: So, all together at one given time, how many soldiers would be on duty right in this corridor here? EB: After World War II began , and after the th got finished with their basic training , approximately eighteen people. TH: Right in here? But before that it rather, just a couple like yourself. Was Sergeant Gooch in here too? EB: No, he spent his time up in the Headquarters. Is this the step down? EH: We are going on a tile floor now.
This is a brand new door hole they cut that through. EH: To our left we are looking at a doorway. EB: This is a solid wall. They chopped it out. EH: And if you look carefully at it you will see that it was newly broken to the far left now. To our right is a short archway. EB: There was a desk here where somebody who would want to go behind there, you would pass through.
Like an information center. This is where the General sat back there. Out of the way. KH: Is this what became…. EB: This was S1. S1 is intelligence. EH: We are walking past the desk area…. EB: They would say intelligence, they would give out orders. They were given orders.
So from the intelligence phone to an order phone the conversation went one way. They gave out information, intelligence, and they received it. It was from the General, S1, out. EH: Going through a short archway…. EB: This was for the people that worked for him. Clerks and what not. KH: Were they all here when you first came? EB: There was an old gate back there and it was just like it was when we moved it in here. It was just like it was. It was a mess. Rats and all. The back doors were open. Very wet. Just like this. TH: Really?
I see. EH: We are facing two archways, one on our left and leaving a corner and one on our right. We are going through the right arch. EB: This is where the General was. He had a lot of people under him. It went from a Private all the way to a General. So you went….. TH: The Chain of Command. KH: He was protected way back then.
EH: Going through another doorway with a duct system above. TH: Are we talking about General Gage? EB: Yeah, that was our first General. Before that the commanding officer was a Colonel. When the Colonel was in charge, he would have been back there. The Commanding Officer at that time was Gage. So he would be back here. Then Ostrum after him. TH: General Ostrum. KH: When did they move in here?
EB: Well, say, when they were working on these orders just before World War II broke out so they anticipated moving them in here and making use of it. I guess, maybe, during World War I they used all these rooms for ammunition. TH: From the original plan this was the ammunition rooms. These long wings, this one and the one on the other side, were for the storage of ammunition. I have to ask you, what was in here? EB: A desk and a chair or a few extra chairs for a conference, I guess.
TH: Would that be a wooden desk? EB: I think so. TH: Yeah it was all heavy wooden. What would like General Gage be doing down here if he were here, what would he be doing? EB: Doing what regular office people would do. Or if we were attacked or something or if Gage gave us any information we had control from here all the way down past Atlantic City all the way down to the other end of New Jersey.
TH: I see so this became, like if attacked, like a battlefield Command Post. This is where he would command from. TH: How often did he use it? Or the Colonel before Gage? There was a Colonel before Gage?
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TH: So how often………. How often would he be down in here, to your knowledge? EB: Maybe once a week, when they had a drill or something. TH: Are there any stories you can tell about him coming down here or any recollections? TH: Did he ever come to see your work? EB: Well, he had to come through to go to the bathroom. Laughter TH: He had to pass right through. EB: He had to get permission from Mr. TH: Really. For him and the other officers.
I mean they had the General, Colonel and Majors all the way down. TH: How about right out here? EB: Adjutant, or Lt. Colonel, Colonel or something. And his Aide. He probably had a Captain as an Aide. TH: Right, he did. I wonder. EB: Probably used this as another office. The HDCP, is that what…….. KH: Was there a separate General or somebody who was in charge of that? Gage was in charge. TH: Well for the Army. KH: Including Fort Tilden?
EB: Not air. Well, we had anti-aircraft so he would come under the air. They had an army defense command there too. The Headquarters was stationed before they came over here, before they took us over. And then Wadsworth came under him and all the way down the coast to the south end of Cape May. TH: And to Montauk Point. KH: He controlled all the guns. TH: All the soldiers, right. From Montauk Point at the tip of Long Island. EB: We had the same type of set up down in Cape May as in here.
EH: A big district. KH: I was wondering where the abandon areas were? EB: Well, they had the janitorial services in there a few men stationed in there. Clean up if they made a mess, pick up the garbage and all. KH: I mean did they use these corridors back here? EB: Going out, this was the main corridor.
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TH: Yeah, this is the main corridor. EB: Then there was the control room. We had a pass for Harbor Defense. EH: We are looking to our left going back in the direction to the entrance where we came in and we are going through a wood frame doorway again. Through arching tunneled rooms again. To another wood frame doorway which I guess were also trimmed with battleship gray paint. EB: This was S2. This is where all information came from, came into.
If a gun battle or a searchlight went into operation they were notified by phone or by an operating room panel board that lit up as soon as it went into operation. They had to use the Post telephone or they would have to tell us to patch them through. EH: Tell us about that big plywood panel. Where would that have been? Right to our left here?
And it had Lucite rods that lit up. You can see the wooden framework right above us. EB: Oh yeah cables running under there. EH: It must have been pretty large? Fifteen or twenty feet long with Lucite rods?
EB: It covered quite a bit of territory. In some areas we had search lights and in some areas we had three inch anti-aircraft guns. They had code names for them. EB: No one was actually watching. It was just like a check point. If someone called in and said AA Battery number 3 went into operation, they looked to make sure that the light lit up. Then if they looked later on and the light was off they realized it went out of operation and they received a phone call later on.
It was an interval in between. So we depended on the telephone outside communications. TH: About how many soldiers would be on duty in this room? EB: Maybe 3,4,5 and an officer. TH: Would they be watching those lights? EB: Not really they had other assignments. TH: What might those be, off hand, if you have another example? EB: Just paperwork giving out passes or something, you know. EH: We are walking through an archway into a room that has an archway to our left and archway in front of us and a doorway to our right.
Supplies ordering stuff and transportation would have been in here. EH: S3 would be to our immediate left? In this area. EB: Side by side and people working in the back here as clerks taking care of paperwork. TH: So both S3 and S4 were both in this long corridor. This long corridor here was, I believe, the East tunnel that was used for ammunition storage for the Mortar Batteries when they were in operation for Batteries McCook and Reynolds.
So what you got here is a long tunnel but at the back is a small room and maybe Ed can fill us in. This was originally a long tunnel once again they partitioned it. This one has a small room at the end. Do you know what that was used for? Just supplies and stored supplies. TH: Any office work done in here too Ed? TH: Office work. What would be stored down here? You mentioned storage. What possibly might they have tucked away in here?
EB: Information maps, maybe, and all, for the gun emplacements. This may have been a safe. TH: Somebody has been in here and knocked the door down. EB: This may have been a safe. TH: Oh yes, I see it has two small metal doors. One is laying on the ground. EH: So it was specially protected to be a safe. That certainly looks that way. EB: ….. EB: They were always locked so no fresh air would really come in here.
They used the vents. EH: Right. EB: This was locked too. This was probably used as a safe. EH: Above the door is another sort of iron or metal plate and at the lower floor levels on either side of the door are two square openings in the walls. There is a duct work equipment right above our heads going through the main axis of this room.
EB: Fresh air and heat from the heating system. Did anything exciting ever happen?
Did anything out of the ordinary routine of communication work and watching the Harbor defenses, ever happen? TH: You were mentioning it was comfortable in here. It was warm and dry. EB: This whole area. It was like this before they started and with the heat they brought into it. Or was that for your section? You know, when they refurbished all this, this back section, as you called it?
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From the area that you worked in back here, was this th Coast Artillery soldiers on duty in this section? Or 7th C. EB: It was 7th. It was Headquarters. You know, the officers, they were all mixed and they worked for the same General. TH: Yeah, for Gage. EH: Do we have to refer to any of these photographs? Here, we had a Coca Cola machine. At one time it was out of operation and the Coke man was here. This was summertime. The Coke man had GI suntans on. He was repairing the machine and someone politely tapped him on the shoulder to move out of the way that he wanted a Coke.
Wait your turn. Once again, do you know, off hand, what would be stored in them? EB: I imagine it would be like if you had a bomb shelter today, you would store a lot of stuff. TH: Food, water, yeah. EB: In case of…. TH: Emergency. EH: We are walking down a long corridor which is really half of an archway.
If you look at it. TH: Less than half. EH: To our left we are coming to a wooden framed door. TH: A lot of graffiti on the inside of the room. But originally this was one big huge gallery. They just partitioned it down. EB: It was. EH: And there is still tile work below us. EB: These other rooms were plastered. TH: Yeah, plastered over. EH: You can really see the construction here which was partly damaged. EB: This area was wide open. They just made a lot of rooms here. TH: Would you meet many soldiers going down these corridors, Ed, or was it rather quiet. I mean, men just sticking to their desks?
They came and stayed their time and they worked on their paperwork and left when they were finished. The only ones that would come in would be outsiders looking for information and then leaving again. Like gun commanders or something looking for information. EH: Going through a doorway.
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EB: This was an entrance coming in from the other end. EB: There was probably a guard standing out here at the gate to let someone in. After he came in he had to ring a bell. But he had to pass through the guard first to authorize him into the building. He would have to have a pass. TH: Would that guard be right outside this door here? A Sentry? EB: Umm. With a gun. TH: What period are we talking about now when a sentry was here?
EB: After Pearl Harbor. After it was remodeled here. They were working on it. EB: At the beginning. Pearl Harbor Day and maybe six months afterwards. TH: I see. What type of weapon would he be armed with? He may have had a. Or both. It all depends on what he was issued at the time and qualified.
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What was it like, morale wise? I mean, you probably saw soldiers coming in here in peace time. I mean there was trouble in Europe. I am wondering what morale was like. Did you really feel like you were part of a defense system? That you were the first line of defense as compared to say like — What was morale like, did the soldiers feel important? Did they feel that all of this was necessary? EB: I would say so, yes. TH: Did you ever talk about it. Take yourself back to How did you feel after Pearl Harbor?
The US Navy was shot up and…. EB: Everybody felt like they had an important job. TH: Did you feel that it was all necessary. TH: You know, we were never attacked. Do you think that the Harbor Defenses of New York could have repelled you know, say an invasion, in your estimation? EB: Well, we did have submarines come up. Some of them went up into New York Harbor. TH: Do you know that for a fact? EB: Before they had a chance to close the submarine gates. Then when they left New York Harbor and were out into the ocean, say they blew up a ship and they picked up survivors.
They were telling what was happening in New York City. Ya know, Rockefeller Center was running a certain show. Say somebody got shot in the arm or something. When they picked up survivors from the boat that had left New York Harbor they would tell them and sure enough the sailor that picked up the survivor would be able to verify that that happened or that that show was on Broadway. Our guns would go TH: Yeah at the most. TH: You made an interesting statement that you said that the submarines actually came into the Harbor.
Do you know that to be factual? Do you know that to be true? Because I myself find it hard to believe. People want to believe this. But I as a historian, find it hard to believe because of the shallow depth of New York Harbor.