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Intents and intent filters. User interface. Improving layout performance. Custom view components. Look and feel. Add the app bar. Control the system UI visibility. Supporting swipe-to-refresh. Pop-up messages overview. Adding search functionality. Creating backward-compatible UIs. Media app architecture. Building an audio app. Building a video app. Routing between devices. Background tasks. Sending operations to multiple threads. Manage device awake state. Save files on device storage. Save data in a local database. Sharing simple data.

Sharing files. Sharing files with NFC. Printing files. Content providers. Autofill framework.

Specifications

Contacts provider. Data backup. Back up key-value pairs. Remember and authenticate users. User location. Using touch gestures. Handling keyboard input. Supporting game controllers. Input method editors. Performing network operations. Transmit network data using Volley.

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Mobile 3D Graphics API

Perform network operations using Cronet. Transferring data without draining the battery. Reduce network battery drain. Transfer data using Sync Adapters. Wi-Fi infrastructure. Discover and connect. Runtime API reference. Web-based content. Android App Bundles. Google Play Instant. Get started with instant apps. Get started with instant games. Integrate with Firebase. Launch and iterate. Best practices. Building effective unit tests. Automating UI tests. Testing app component integrations. Android Vitals.

Optimizing for Battery Life. Manage memory. Build and test apps for accessibility. Protecting against security threats with SafetyNet. Build for Billions. Build for Enterprise. App feedback. Device management. Dedicated devices. Android versions. Google Play. Google Play Billing. The display server sits between the kernel here: Linux kernel and its clients.

It communicate. Hardware acceleration of this process has been commonplace since approximately GPUs that support more recent versions of the standards are backward-compatible with applications that use the older standards; for example, one can run older DirectX 9 games on a more recent DirectX certified GPU. Availability Direct3D application development targets the Microsoft Windows platform. The OpenGL API is an open standard, which means that various hardware makers and operating system developers can freely create an OpenGL implementation as part of their system.

OpenGL implementations exist for a wide variety of platfor. WebGPU is the working name for a future web standard and JavaScript API for accelerated graphics and compute, aiming to provide "modern 3D graphics and computation capabilities". It is based on concepts in Vulkan, Metal, and Direct3D 12 and is intended to provide high performance on these modern graphics APIs across mobile and desktop platforms.

Metal is a low-level, low-overhead hardware-accelerated 3D graphic and compute shader application programming interface API developed by Apple Inc. With Metal, both graphics and compu. Components of a GPU A graphics processing unit GPU is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the creation of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display device.

GPUs are used in embedded systems, mobile phones, personal computers, workstations, and game consoles.

Mobile 3D Graphics API (M3G)

Modern GPUs are very efficient at manipulating computer graphics and image processing. Their highly parallel structure makes them more efficient than general-purpose central processing units CPUs for algorithms that process large blocks of data in parallel.

In a personal computer, a GPU can be present on a video card or embedded on the motherboard. S3 Graphics, Ltd commonly referred to as S3 is an American computer graphics company. Struggling against competition from 3dfx Interactive, ATI and Nvidia during the height of the 3D accelerator wars, the graphics portion of the company was spun off into a new joint effort with VIA Technologies. The new company focused on the mobile graphics market, and became a major player in this space.

The company was purchased by HTC in Although primarily a mobile technology company, they still produce graphics accelerators for home computers under the "S3 Chrome" brand name. After several profitable years as an independent startup company, and then struggling with the transition to integrated 3D cards, S3 remodeled i. This page contains information about Intel's GPUs and motherboard graphics chipsets in table form.

It is designed for embedded systems like smartphones, tablet computers, video game consoles and PDAs. Vulkan, a next-generation API from Khronos, is made for simpler high performance drivers for mobile and desktop devices. OpenGL ES 1. This list contains general information about graphics processing units GPUs and video cards from Nvidia, based on official specifications. In addition some Nvidia motherboards come with integrated onboard GPUs. Field explanations The fields in the table listed below describe the following: Model — The marketing name for the processor, assigned by Nvidia.

Launch — Date of release for the processor. Code name — The internal engineering codename for the processor typically designated by an NVXY name and later GXY where X is the series number and Y is the schedule of the project for that generation. Fab — Fabrication process. Average feature size of components of the processor. Memory — The amount of graphics memory available to the processor. SM Count — Number of streaming multiproce. A 3D phone is a mobile phone or other mobile device that conveys depth perception to the viewer by employing stereoscopy or any other form of 3D depth techniques.

Since , many companies have introduced autostereoscopic displays for smartphones. Nevertheless, it was not until when 3D-enabled mobile phones began to catch on.


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According to DisplaySearch, smartphones will be the largest 3D display application on a unit shipment basis in , with million units with 3D capability. History Papervision3D was launched by Carlos Ulloa around December ; it was made open source by the end of Papervision3D was of the first 3D rendering engines built for Adobe Flash Player, and at the time of its launch in , was the most complete and best known 3D engine for Flash. According to a book Papervision3D was "without a doubt the best known" 3D engine for Flash.

Java Platform Micro Edition (Java ME)

The platform uses the object-oriented Java programming language. It is part of the Java software-platform family. The program features a unified API that allows users to add interactive 3D visualization to both desktop and mobile applications. HOOPS Visualize provides a hierarchical scene management engine capable of handling a range of graphics entities, together with a graphics pipeline and interaction handling algorithms.

It includes clash detection, multi-plane sectioning, and large model visualization, along with many other features. Ithaca Software later formed to commercialize the technology. In , Autodesk, Inc. Makehuman is a free and open source 3D computer graphics software middleware designed for the prototyping of photo realistic humanoids.

It is developed by a community of programmers, artists, and academics interested in 3D modeling of characters. Technology MakeHuman is developed using 3D morphing technology. Starting from a standard unique androgynous human base mesh, it can be transformed into a great variety of characters male and female , mixing them with linear interpolation.

For example, given the four main morphing targets baby, teen, young, old , it is possible to obtain all the intermediate shapes. Interpolation of MakeHuman characters: 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th are targets, others intermediate shapes. Using this technology, with a large database of morphing targets, it's virtually possible to reproduce any character.

It uses a very simple GUI in order to access and easily handle hundreds of morphings. The MakeHuman approach is to use sliders with common parameters, like height, weight, gender, et. OpenXR is an open, royalty-free standard for access to virtual reality and augmented reality platforms and devices. Blend4Web is a free and open source framework for creating and displaying interactive 3D computer graphics in web browsers. It can also be exported as a single, self-contained HTML file, in which exported data, the web player GUI and the engine itself are packed.

This article contains a list of libraries that can be used in. NET languages. These languages require. NET framework or. NET Core, which provide a basis for software development, platform independence, language interoperability and extensive framework libraries. Standard Libraries including the Base Class Library are not included in this article. Preamble Apps created with. NET Framework or. NET Core run in a software environment known as the Common Language Runtime CLR , an application virtual machine that provides services such as security, memory management, and exception handling.

Thanks to the hosting virtual machine, different. When the source code of a CLI-compliant language is compiled, the compiler generates. Frameworks are available to create WebGL content quickly and easily without building from the ground up. Note: the following list mixes WebGL libraries with game engines as well as cloud services without any distinctions.

There are more than 2. It was also used on the Bada operating system and on Symbian OS along with native software. CLDC is basically used for classifying myriad devices into a fixed configuration. A configuration provides the most basic set of libraries and virtual-machine features that must be present in each implementation of a J2ME environment.

When coupled with one or more profiles, the Connected Limited Device Configuration gives developers a solid Java platform for creating applications for consumer and embedded devices. Applications written for this profile are called MIDlets. Almost all new cell phones come with a MIDP implementation, and it is now the de facto standard for downloadable cell phone games. However, many cellphones can run only those MIDlets that have been approved by the carrier, especially in North America. It is richer than CLDC.

This profile is intended to be used by devices requiring a complete implementation of the Java virtual machine up to and including the entire Java Platform, Standard Edition API. Typical implementations will use some subset of that API set depending on the additional profiles supported. This specification was developed under the Java Community Process. This is the platform that BD-J is built upon. Starting with the JavaME 3. In contrast to the numerous binary implementations of the Java Platform built by Sun for servers and workstations, Sun does not provide any binaries for the platforms of Java ME targets with the exception of an MIDP 1.

This is a Java Applet-based emulator and can be embedded in web pages. The linux-based Android operating system uses a proprietary version of Java that is similar, but not identical to Java Me. Especially cost effective Standards. Typical applications domains are industrial control, machine-to-machine, medical, e-metering, home automation, consumer, human-to-machine-interface, …. It specifies a reliable initialization phase of the Java device, and 3 kind of objects: immutable, immortal and regular mortal objects.

Such devices typically have some form of display, some input sensors and potentially some sound rendering capabilities. This specification spans a potentially wide set of devices. Compiling against CLDC1.


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  6. Oracle Corporation. Retrieved February 26, ISBN Knudsen, Jonathan January 8, Prentice Hall. Li, Sing; Knudsen, Jonathan April 25, Sub Topics. Related Posts: Computing platform A computing platform or digital platform[1] is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system OS , even a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it.

    Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture, an OS, or runtime libraries. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process, in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions; and as an assistance to the development process, in that they provide low-level functionality ready-made.

    For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network. Components Platforms may also include: Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS; this is referred to as running on "bare metal". A browser in the case of web-based software. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform. Cloud computing and Platform as a Service.


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    7. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together. Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, which is then executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, software, and storage. These allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on what is physically a Mac.

      Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it. In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer immediately beneath it. For instance, a Java program has to be written to use the Java virtual machine JVM and associated libraries as a platform but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms. They then send builds to the cloud based build server. Then they can download the native app from the build server to run on the device or submit to the store.

      Native The developers of Codename One define the platform as a native code generator, but clarify that native widgets are usually not used to render the user interfaces of Codename One applications.

      First comparison of Vulkan API vs OpenGL ES API on ARM

      This allows for great portability, but has also come under fire by some critics of the lightweight approach. An application server acts as a set of components accessible to the software developer through a standard API defined for the platform itself. For Web applications, these components are usually performed in the same running environment as their web server s , and their main job is to support the construction of dynamic pages. However, many application servers target much more than just Web page generation: they implement services like clustering, fail-over, and load-balancing, so developers can focus on implementing the business logic.

      Currently, despite the fact that web-browsers have become ubiquitous and are typically the client for end-users in many application deployment strategies, browser-based web apps represent only a subset of application-server technologies. Application Server definition Application servers are system software upon which web applications or desktop applications[citation needed] run.

      Application servers consist of web server connectors,[clarification needed] computer programming languages, runtime libraries, database connectors, and the administration code needed to deploy, configure, manage, and connect these components on a web host. An application server runs behind[citation needed] a web Server e. Web applications are computer code which run atop application servers and are written in the language s the application server supports and call the runtime libraries and components the application server offers.

      Many application servers exist. The choice impacts the cost, performance, reliability, scalability, and maintainability of a web application. Proprietary application servers provide system services in a well-defined but proprietary manner. The application developers develop programs according to the specification of the application server. Dependence on a particular vendor is the drawback of this approach. An opposite but analogous case is the Java EE platform. Java EE application servers provide system services in a well-defined, open, industry standard.

      The application developers develop programs according to the Java EE specification and not according to the application server. It is developed by JetBrains formerly known as IntelliJ , and is available as an Apache 2 Licensed community edition,[3] and in a proprietary commercial edition. Both can be used for commercial development. Coding assistance The IDE provides certain features[12] like code completion by analyzing the context, code navigation which allows jumping to a class or declaration in the code directly, code refactoring and options to fix inconsistencies via suggestions.

      Plugin ecosystem IntelliJ supports plugins through which one can add additional functionality to the IDE. These figures are much smaller than those of editors such as Atom, which has over packages essentially plugins. However, some features that are included by default in IntelliJ can only be added to Atom by installing packages. For example, linting is built into IntelliJ, and it can be installed in Atom, per programming language, with a variety of packages. Supported languages The Community and Ultimate editions differ in their support for various programming languages as shown in the following table.

      It is integrated with the Eclipse development environment. The first version of the product was launched in early with support for the Java ME platform. Support for several other mobile development platforms has been added since. MoSync AB filed for bankruptcy in July MoSync currently supports versions of Android 2.